Autism is one of four developmental problems under the title of Common Developmental Disorders (PDD). Lifetime is the most important factor that indicates the seriousness of the problem. This problem affects one's social life, communication skills and behaviors.
What Causes Autism?
When it was first described autism It was thought that it was caused by psychological reasons and that the connection between mother and baby could not be established, or in other words, “cold motherhood ot. However, many studies conducted to date on the causes of autism have proved that this is not true.
Causes of autism Research and studies are still ongoing. However, although there are no definite reasons or reasons yet, the opinion that autism has a genetic basis is gaining weight and scientific researches in the world are focused on this issue.
Autism Many people with serotonin substance and immune system disorder is seen in excess. The relationship between vaccines, allergies, fungal infections, trauma and autism is also being investigated. All the opinions put forward about the causes of autism alone are insufficient to explain this problem. Recent research has focused on the following points:
Causes of Autism in Infants
a- Genetic Causes of Autism in Infants: It is thought that multiple genes may be effective in the emergence of autism by combining some environmental factors. These environmental factors include blood biochemistry, drugs used. Structural deficiency in genes may be generations ahead Drugs used during pregnancy, viruses and radiation genes can be disrupted by such factors. However, there is ongoing research on this gene or genes.
b- Structural Causes of Autism in Infants: Some studies suggest that structural differences in certain regions of the brain may cause autism. When the brains of autistic individuals are examined, differences in blood flow in the anterior and lateral regions of the brain It has been identified. Side regions of the brain; is responsible for understanding spoken language, planning, coordination, control and motivation of social behaviors. At the same time, studies with autistic children have revealed abnormalities in the cerebellum, brain stem and anterior regions. The cerebellum is a region that coordinates our movements and has tasks in social interaction. The brainstem is the area where incoming warnings are collected like a mailbox. The presence of structural disorders in these regions makes it easier for us to understand behavioral and adaptation difficulties in children with autism.
c- External Factors Affecting Prenatal-Birth-Post-Birth Periods: Research has shown that multiple conditions that affect brain development at these stages can cause autism. Especially rubella disease in the womb may cause severe autism. Traumas during childbirth and related baby's lack of oxygen, environmental toxins, tuberous sclerosis, phenyl ketonuria syndrome Metabolic diseases such as can also cause autism.
Symptoms of AutismGeneral symptoms of autism include:
- Decreased eye contact.
- Perform repetitive and stereotypical behaviors. (hand flapping, finger snapping)
- Don't be disinterested in looking around.
- Shaking objects, rotating.
- Speech disorder.
Characteristics of Babies with Autism
Although the severity and level of autism varies individually, the problem generally presents the following characteristics:
1. Serious delays in language development:
The majority of children with autism learn to speak late. However, approximately 28% can stay without using any words. In the speeches of children with autism, different forms of speech, the use of words outside their meaning and a uniform tone are encountered. They often do repetitions and mold sentences they use The most prominent elements of their speech.
2. Having difficulty in understanding and establishing social relations:
Children with autism avoid eye contact with other people, prefer activities by themselves, close themselves to the outside world and do not engage in social relationships with their peers, share their feelings and remain unresponsive to many events around them. When all or more of these features are combined, autistic children individuals with severe social relationship problems as it turns out.
3. Strange reactions to sensory stimuli:
Although autistic children are often insensitive to the events and sounds around them, they sometimes overreact to some sensory stimuli. For example, the horn of the car or the barking of a dog may cause them to startle tremendously, while touching it in a very hot or cold place may not cause them to react.
4. Nonspecific features in mental functioning:
Serious differences can be observed between the various abilities of autistic children. For example, the child capable of painting well above his age chronological yhave the ability to communicate well below the vaccine. Therefore, it is not possible to talk about certain criteria related to their mental development. Children with autism an mental retardation is observed in mostOnly 10-15% of children with autism have normal or abnormal intelligence.
5. Interest in a limited number of activities:
Some autistic children may show excessive attachment to repetitive movements. They both like to repeat a certain movement continuously and never get tired of it. If they do not encounter any intervention during the day, they continue to repeat these movements. Again these children develop curiosity on different topics instead stuck in some games you can play this game constantly. According to the opinions of parents of autistic children, these games are usually children's self-found games and do not make much sense to adults.
6. Excessive reaction to deterioration of routine in daily life:
Autistic children are extremely dependent on the routines that exist in their daily lives. They can react greatly in situations such as disruption or disruption of these routines, and they are also very restless and irritable.
Treatment Methods in Autism
The various treatment methods and subtitles of autism can be listed as follows:
Biochemical Treatment of Autism
a.Pharmaceutical treatment: There are no specific drugs in the treatment of autism, which are used to reduce the effects of some of the symptoms of autism, such as children being overly active and aggressive. Drug therapy has the effect to help reduce the severity of such behaviors.
b.Vitamin treatment: In 1960, A study by Bernard Rimland revealed that vitamin therapy is effective in normalizing body metabolism and reducing behavioral problems. As a result, vitamin therapies have begun for autistic children. high-dose vitamin B6 and Magnesium used together.
Diet applications: Dietary applications against foods containing gluten and caseain are the most important treatments of this section. Gluten is the nutritional value of cereals and caseain is the nutritional value of dairy products. What these two nutritional values have in common is that they are a source of protein for humans, but enzyme deficiency in children with autism Because of this, proteins cannot be broken down and cause various problems in children. Treatment by preventing the receipt of these substances It prevents the problems that may occur.
Sensory and Perceptual Treatments in Autism
a.Sensory integration treatment: Children with autism face the problem of not being able to distinguish the various senses they receive from the outside world. This treatment aims to teach them to make sensory discrimination.
Auditory integration therapy: It is believed that the problem of hypersensitivity to sound seen in autistic children is caused by a hearing disorder, and therefore, the severity of this problem is tried to be reduced by hearing treatments.
Psychological Treatment in Autism
Psychotherapy: Especially Dr. It is a method Kanner emphasizes, because according to Dr Kanner, one of the main causes of the disease was the psychological history of the individual. However, although research conducted in the following years reveals that Kanner was not right, psychotherapy is still used in the treatment of autism.
Love the best treat!
Because the autistic child is indifferent to his surroundings, many people think that they do not understand or hear. But they hear and understand you very well. To approach them with love and not to be angry contributes to their development. You can make the best contribution by making them feel that you are next to them.
Apart from all these, the most important is to accept them as they are and to support them. Remember, they are just different and beautiful with differences in life….