Both should be diagnosed early so that children's life and vision are not affected. Acıbadem Kocaeli Hospital Ophthalmology Specialist Azmiye Altınışık lists the major eye diseases seen in childhood as follows; visual defects, lazy eye, slipped eye, tear duct obstruction, more rarely cataracts, eye pressure, tumors and structural abnormalities due to eye development.WHEN TO DO THE FIRST INSPECTION?The most frequently asked question to ophthalmologists is when an infant's eye examination should be performed. If there is a suspected condition in the eye should do immediately, if you do not have a complaint between 2-4 years. If there is any problem in the routine pediatrician examinations of the babies, it can be determined in advance and directed to the pediatric ophthalmologist. Parents, especially wearing glasses, wonder if there is a problem with seeing the baby. Although some of the visual defects are hereditary, some of them are congenital as hypermetropia and some of them occur at school age. In a 2001 study by the International Association for the Prevention of Blindness, it was reported that 5 to 15% of children had visual deficits and most of these were not corrected. Similar results were obtained in screening studies conducted in our country. Most children are hyperopia at birth and decrease around 4 years of age. It is seen between 4-7% in school age. Myopia is rare by birth. It is 1% around 5 years of age and 15% around 15 years of age. The most common visual defect is astigmatism and its incidence is approximately 70%. However, only 3% of them are 1.25 and above, which negatively affects vision. Those with astigmatism more than 1 degree have astigmatism before the age of 2 years. There are no visible signs of visual impairment in children. Watching TV closely does not necessarily indicate a visual defect. If it falls frequently, is uncomfortable with light, brings it too close to see the toys in hand, blinking too much, it is necessary to suspect visual defects. However, he may be aware that he does not see well when he starts school. When vision defects that are high are not noticed at an early age, they cannot complete the development of vision and the condition that we call lazy eye emerges. For this reason, children between 2-4 years of age must be examined by an ophthalmologist. LAZY EYE - STRABILITYAnother eye problem that will be detected in this examination is lazy eye. Lazy eye may not be noticed if it is not accompanied by eye slippage. Lazy eye is a treatable eye disease when diagnosed early. However, it is not possible to treat it after completing the development of vision. Although it is seen in the first months of life, most of them are around 1.5-2 years old. It can be hereditary, but some diseases such as low eyelid, cataract and tumor which may prevent vision in birth or in the first years of life may cause eye slippage. The shift may be inward, outward, downward or upward, or may be in one or two eyes. When there is only one eye, there is lazy eye. When combined with other eye diseases, they must be treated first. If it is not, it should be corrected if there is a visual defect, lazy eye should be treated and if the slip continues despite the glasses, operations should be performed to correct the slip. In the preschool period, both eye shift and visual impairment should be corrected. TEARING CHANNEL CONGULATIONTear duct obstruction is one of the most common eye problems in infants. From birth, there is watering and burring in the eye. Although it is mostly self-correcting, it is seen at around 6%. In the treatment of massage, antibiotic drops are applied warm compresses. It is opened with a small intervention if it is not opened automatically within the first year. It seldom requires a larger undertaking. Congenital intraocular blood pressure is also watery eyes. This is more urgent. Tear should not be confused with duct obstruction. If a baby's eye is large, can not look at the light if the water pressure is suspected should be suspected. If blood pressure lowering interventions are not performed, it causes blindness.CATARACTCongenital cataracts, intraocular tumors or other rare intraocular diseases should be suspected when the pupils of the infant or children are seen as white, if there is light in the dark, or if red reflection has not been canceled in their flash photographs. Cataracts affect vision and intraocular tumor can cause eye or life loss if diagnosed late. Some congenital abnormalities in infants are not only formal but also affect vision. The most common of these is the low eyelid. If the decrease affects vision, the operation is performed within the first 6-9 months. If not, it should be done around 3-4 years old. Performing strabismus and eyelid surgery in preschool period will enable children to establish more social relations with their friends.