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Nutrition is the ability to obtain and use balanced nutrients necessary for growth and development. There is a mutual interaction between nutrition and health status.
Immune system is affected in children who are not well fed, susceptibility to diseases occurs, nutrition may deteriorate a little more after each disease, growth and development is not at the expected level. If breast milk is sufficient, it can meet all the needs of the baby alone in the first 6 months.
How is breast milk adequacy understood?
The best indication that the baby is saturated is enough weight gain. 150-200gr in the first 6 months. or every month 600-800gr. weight gain indicates that breast milk is sufficient. In addition, the baby 5-6 times a day to wet the poo, 1-2 times a day to give us an idea about the adequacy of breast milk. On the other hand, when the mother's milk is insufficient, the baby may fall asleep and not cry due to the decrease in blood sugar level when the baby goes hungry. This calm appearance may give the impression that the baby is accidentally saturated. Therefore, the baby's weight gain should be closely monitored at the first 1 year of age.
What should be done to ensure that breast milk is abundant?
There are 3 main factors affecting the secretion of breast milk.
1- frequent breastfeeding
2- mother's nutrition and fluid intake
3- The mental state of the mother
The most important factor that ensures the abundance of milk is the baby sucking. Breastfeeding should be started as soon as possible (not later than half an hour) after birth. If this period is passed when the baby is most eager to suck, the baby will be reluctant to suck for a long time and the first breastfeeding will be delayed. Even if milk does not come, it should be breastfed early. This will initiate the formation of the reflex and the secretion of milk. In the following process, the baby should be breastfed frequently every day, day and night. During the breastfeeding period of the mother, dieting with aesthetic anxiety or with the aim of losing weight will reduce the formation of milk. The expectation from the mother during this period is not over-nutrition, but rather over-feeding her daily needs. Such an effect of many nutrients that are claimed to increase milk secretion among the public is not known. For this reason, the mother should not diet during lactation, should eat regularly from all food groups, should consume 4 liters of liquid on average, should not consume excessive amounts of tea and coffee, and should not smoke. Another important factor is the mental state of the mother. Stress, discussion, fatigue adversely affect breast milk.
How should breastfeeding periods and intervals be?
Infants absorb 50% of breast milk during the first 1-2 minutes and 90% during the first 5 minutes. The average duration of breastfeeding is between 15-30 minutes. Breastfeeding should be attempted at will, not at fixed time intervals. This period varies from 30 minutes to 3 hours and care should be taken not to exceed 3 hours.
How can I store breast milk?
Especially working mothers can transfer the milk they provide by hand or pump to sterile containers and give it to their babies when they are not at home. Breast milk for this purpose:
|At room temperature||4-6 hours|
|In the freezer of the refrigerator||4 weeks|
|In the freezer||6 months can be stored|
What should be the order in which additional foods are given?
If breast milk is sufficient, no additional food should be given until the 6th month. If breast milk is not sufficient or not available, additional food can be started after the 4th month in accordance with the physician's recommendation.
ADDITIONAL FOOD SCHEDULE
4-6 MONTHS FRUIT JUICE-Mashed YOGHURT, VEGETABLE SOUPS AND PESTS, DISPOSAL, SPOON AND JAR FOOD
6-7 MONTHS In addition, BREAKFAST BEANS AND CEREALS MEAT VEGETABLES CHICKEN VEGETABLES
7-9 MONTHS in addition to MEATBALLS, CHICKEN, FISH AND STUFFS
9-12 MONTHS in addition to PASTA, RICE, FOOD FOODS
EXAMPLES OF PREPARATION
APPLE washed, passed through boiling water, peeled, mashed in the glass grated.
PEACH washed, passed through boiling water, peeled, cut into slices, mashed with a fork, fed.
BANANA mashed with a fork, fed.
ORANGE water is squeezed. Juice should be prepared at home if possible, starting with twice a day, should be consumed within half an hour after preparation. The use of a mixer should be avoided if possible.
YOGHURT: 60Kcal, 3gr.protein = 100cc milk, 1 teaspoon yogurt yeast
The milk is boiled and cooled to the temperature the hand can touch. 1 teaspoon of yogurt (yeast) is added. Cover for 3 to 4 hours without moving. Fruits and biscuits can be placed inside.
VEGETABLE SOUP: 300Kcal, 3.5 g protein: 2 portions; 1 small carrot, 1 medium potato, 1 tbsp rice, 1 tbsp olive oil
After cooking, it is passed through a wire strainer and fed to the baby. It can be diversified by adding a new vegetable at a time. In the following months, a tablespoon of minced meat or chicken meat can also be added.
PUDDING: 200Kcal, 5-6 g. protein: 2 servings; 200ml water, 1 wiping tablespoon rice flour, 6 scale industrial food
Rice flour is added to cold water and crushed. It is cooked by slow stirring. After being lowered from the stove, it is added to the food while it is warm and fed.
BREAKFAST: 210 Kcal, 6-7 gr of protein: 2 servings, 1 egg yolk, 1 box of cheese, 1 teaspoon of molasses, bread or biscuit
Egg, ¼ Egg yolk is started as a solid. It is increased every 2-3 days and the whole is reached in 8-10 days. The cheese should be salt-free and medium-fat, if necessary put into the water in the evening. Breakfast products can be given separately or in breast milk, formula, herbal teas.
GRILLED MEAT BALLS: 70Kcal, 6gr. protein: 1 serving; 30 g lean beef minced very little bread, very little parsley
The bread is slightly soaked, parsley and minced meat are kneaded, cooked in a heated oven or oil-free pan and fed. Instead of bread, rice can be added as juicy meatballs.
Acıbadem Bursa Hospital, Child Health and Diseases Specialist More professionals named Bülent Öztürk